The genus Penicillium has several species, as listed above, and are found in damp indoor spaces and are part of the ERMI test.
P. mameffei fungi has been isolated from patients with keratitis, ear infections, pneumonia, endocarditis, peritonitis and urinary tract infections.
Penicillium infections are most commonly exhibited in immunosuppressed individuals and can also occur in individuals on corticosteroids. The fungus is abundant in Southeast Asia and typically infects patients with AIDS in this area.
Infection is acquired via inhalation and initially results in a pulmonary infection and then spreads to other areas of the body (lymphatic system, liver, spleen and bones) and is often fatal. An indication of infection is the appearance of papules that resemble acne on the face, trunk and extremities.
Penicillium spp. has the ability to produce mycotoxins. These include tremorgens, neurotoxins, Ochratoxin A (nephrotoxin and carcinogen) rubratoxins and mycophenolic acid, verrucosidin (neurotoxin) and penicillic acid (nephrotoxic and hepatotoxic).