Eurotium species are one of several genera that are indicative of water intrusion and resultant amplification of fungi (molds) and bacteria. Eurotium is the sexual state of several Aspergillus spp. For example, Aspergillus amstelodami is now classified as Eurotium along with many other species of genus, Eurotium. Therefore, some of the older literature used A. Amstelodami.
The detection of Eurotium in the indoor environment indicates persistent high relative humidity, poor ventilation and condensation problems. The species of Eurotium detected in indoor environments include the following: amstelodami, rubrum, repens and herbariorium (Yana and Li; Baudisch et al, 2009).
Eurotium spp. along with C. globosum and A. fumigatus were elevated from homes of asthmatic children (Vesper et al, 2007) and are elevated in moisture-damaged vs reference schools where children were symptomatic (Lignell, et al, 2007).
Eurotium species produce a variety of metabolites. These include: neochinulin A and B, ephiheveardride, flavoglaucin, auroglaucin, isotetrahydorauroglaucin, echinulin, preecninulin, neoechinulin E and questin (Slack et al, 2009). Little is known regarding the toxicology of these metabolites.
Eurotium repens produces echinulin, physicon, erythroglaucin, flavoglaucin and asperentin. Of these, physicon was cytotoxic to HeLa cells at 0.1 µg/ml (Podojil et al, 1978).
In addition, A. amstelodami produces alkaloids of piperazinedione group including cryptoechinuline C and A (Selva and Taldi, 1977). Two antibiotics (Amodin A and B) are active against Gram-positive and acid-fast organisms.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis are produced by A. amstelodami (Darling et al, 1963).
Mycotoxins are also produced by A. amstelodami and other species. These include patulin, sterigmatocystin, ochratoxin A and aflatoxin B1 (Bukelskiene, et al, 2006; Schroeder & Kelton, 1975; Senyuva et al, 2008).
In conclusion, Eurotium species are important fungi in moisture-damaged structures adding to the toxins and antigens in these environments.
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