shopify analytics ecommerce

OTHER RESEARCH PAPERS

OTHER RESEARCH PAPERS

Government agencies, mainstream medical organizations, teaching hospitals, allopathic physicians, insurance companies, defense attorneys, bought-and-paid-for defense witnesses and other naysayers will tell you that mold isn't harmful or that it effects only immune-compromised individuals. That is not true.

The research is clear. Mold and indoor contaminants can cause serious health problems.

There are thousands of research papers regarding the health effects of indoor contaminants. It's important to remember that the naysayers ignore many of these papers in their ongoing strategy of misinformation and denial.

The following partial list of research papers is provided as a starting point to help you see some of the research available on this subject. 

If someone tells you that mold isn't harmful, give them this list of research papers.

Abdo N, et al. Population-Based in Vitro Hazard and Concentration–Response Assessment of Chemicals: The 1000 Genomes High-Throughput Screening Study. Environmental Health Perspectives. Volume 123, number 5. May 2015.

Ackerley M. Brain on Fire: The Role of Toxic Mold in Triggering Psychiatric Symptoms. 2014.

Adar SD, D’Souza J, Mendelsohn-Victor K, Jacobs DR Jr, Cushman M, Sheppard L, Thorne PS, Burke GL, Daviglus ML, Szpiro AA, Diez Roux AV, Kaufman JD, Larson TV. 2015. Markers of inflammation and coagulation after long-term exposure to coarse particulate matter: a cross-sectional analysis from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Environ Health Perspect 123:541-548; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1308069.

Akpinar-Elci M, White SK, Siegel PD, Park J-H et al. Markers of upper airway inflammation associated with microbial exposure and symptoms in occupants of a water-damaged building. Amer J Indust Med 2013 56:522-530.

Allerman I, Wilkins CK, Madsen AM. Inflammatory potency of dust from the Indoor environment and correlation too content of NAGase and fungi. Toxicology 2002 20:1522-31.

Akpinar-Elci M, White SK, Siegel PD, Park J-H et al. Markers of upper airway inflammation associated with microbial exposure and symptoms in occupants of a water-damaged building. Amer J Indust Med 2013 56:522-530.

Amend AS, Seifert KA, Samson R, Bruns TD. Indoor Fungal Composition is Geographically Patterned and More Diverse in Temperate Zones than in the Tropics. 13748–13753 | PNAS | August 3, 2010 | vol. 107 | no. 31.

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). 1999. Bioaerosols: Assessment and Control. 1999.
American Industrial Hygiene Association. Report of Microbial Growth Task Force. 2001.

Ammann H. Is Indoor Mold Contamination a Threat to Health? Washington State Department of Health. 2002.

Ammann H. Is Indoor Mold Contamination a Threat to Health? Part Two. Washington State Department of Health. 2003.

Andersen B, Frisvad JC, Sondergaard, Rasmussen IS. Larsen LS. Association between fungal species and water-damaged building materials. Appl Environ Micro Biol 2011 77:4180-88.

Andersson MA, Nikulin M, Koljalg U, Andersson MC, et al Bacteria, molds and toxins in water-damaged building materials. Appl Environ Microbiol 1997 63:387-93.

Andersson MA, Mikkola R, Kroppenstedt RM, Rainey FA et al. The mitochondrial toxin produced by Streptomyces griseus strains isolated from an indoor environment is Valinomycin. Appl Environ Microbiol 64:4767-73.

Anyanwu EC. The validity of the environmental neurotoxic effects of toxigenic molds and mycotoxins. . The Internet J of Toxicology. 2008;5(2) DOI:10.5580/2099b.

Anyanwu E, Campbell AW, Jones J, Ehiri JE, Akpan AI. The neurological significance of abnormal natural killer cell activity in chronic toxigenic mold exposures. 

Anyanwu EC, Campbell AW, Vojdani A. Neurophysiological effects of chronic indoor environmental toxic mold exposure on children. The Scientific World 2003 3:281-90.

Anyanwu E, Ehiri J, Akpan AI. Application, effectiveness, and limitations of the electrophysiological diagnosis of neurotoxic effects of chronic environmental mycotoxins in humans. Int J Adolesc Med Health. 2004 Apr-Jun;16(2):107-18. 

Anyanwu EC, Kanu I, Nwachukwu NC, Saleh MA. Chronic environmental exposure to Alternaria tenuis may manifest symptoms of neuropsychological illnesses: A study of 12 cases. J Appl Sci Environ Mgt 2005; 9(3): 45-51.

Anyanwu EC, Morad M, Campbell AW. Metabolism of mycotoxins, intracellular functions of vitamin B12, and neurological manifestations in patients with chronic toxigenic mold exposures. A review. Scientific World Journal. 2004 Aug 26;4:736-45. 

Araki A, Kanazawa A, Kawai T, et al. The relationship between exposure to microbial volatile organic compound and allergy prevalence in single-family homes. The Science of the Total Environment, vol. 423, pp. 18–26, 2012.

Baldo JV, Ahmad L, Ruff R. Neuropsychological performance of patients following mold exposure. Appl Neuropsychol 2002; 9(4): 193-202.

Baxter DM, Perkins JL, McGhee CR, Seltzer JM. A regional comparison of mold spore concentrations outdoors and inside “clean” and “mold contaminated” Southern California buildings. J Occup Environ Hygiene 2002:8-18.

Beijer L, Thorn J, Rylander R. Mould exposure at home relates to inflammatory markers in blood. Eur Respir J 2003 21:317-22.

Beijer L, Thorn T, Rylander R. 2002. Effects after inhalation of (1-3)-β-D-glucan and relation to mould exposure in the home. Mediators Inflammation 11:149-53.

Bergmann F, Yagen B, Jarvis BB. The toxicity of macrocyclic trichothecenes administered directly into the rat brain. Toxicol 1992; 30(10): 1291-1294.

Betancourt DA, Krebs K, Moore SA, Martin SM. Microbial volatile organic compound emissions from Stachybotrys chartarum growing on gypsum wallboard and ceiling tiles. BMC Microbiology 2013, 13:283.

Beurel E. A Primer on Inflammation for Psychiatrists. Psychiatr Ann. 2015; 45(5):226-231.

Bin-Umer MA, McLaughlin JE, Basu D, McCormick S, Tumer NE. Trichothecene mycotoxins inhibit mitochondrial translation--implication for the mechanism of toxicity. Toxins (Basel). 2011 Dec; 3(12):1484-501.

Bloom E, Grimsley LF, Pehrson C, Lewis J, Larsson L. Molds and mycotoxins in dust from water-damaged homes in New Orleans after hurricane Katrina. Indoor Air. 2009 Jan 28.

Bloom E, Nyman E, Must A, Pehrson X, Larsson L. Molds and mycotoxins in indoor environments – A survey in water-damaged buildings. J Occupational Environ Hygiene 2009 6:671-78.

Bondy G, Pestka JJ. Immunomodulation by Fungal Toxins. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B, 3:109-143, 2000.

Boonen J, Malysheva SV, Taevernier L, Mavungu JD, De Saeger S, De Spiegeleer B. Human skin penetration of selected model mycotoxins. Toxicology, vol. 301, no. 1–3, pp. 21–32, 2012.

Boorman E, Romano GF, Russell A, Mondelli V, Pariante C. Are Mood and Anxiety Disorders Inflammatory Diseases? Psychiatr Ann. 2015, 45(5):240-248.

Bouslimi A, Ouannes Z, Golli EE, Bouaziz C, Hassen W, Bacha H. Cytotoxicity and oxidative damage in kidney cells exposed to the mycotoxins Ochratoxin A and citrinin: individual and combined effects. Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 341–349, 2008.

Brasel TL, Martin JM, Carriker CG, Wilson SC, Straus DC. Detection of airborne Stachybotrys chartarum macrocyclic trichothecene mycotoxins in the indoor environment. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005 Nov; 71(11):7376-88.

Brasel TL, Campbell AW, Demers RE, et al. Detection of trichothecene mycotoxins in sera from individuals exposed to Stachybotrys chartarum in indoor environments. Archives of Environmental Health, vol. 59, no. 6, pp. 317–323, 2004.

Brewer JH, Thrasher JD, Hooper D. Chronic illness associated with mold and mycotoxins: is naso-sinus fungal biofilm the culprit? Toxins (Basel). 2013 Dec 24;6(1):66-80. doi: 10.3390/toxins6010066.

Brewer JH, Thrasher JD, Straus DC, Madison RA, Hooper D. (2013). Detection of mycotoxins in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Toxins 5:605-17. 

Bruel KF, Kougias P, Rice PJ, Wei D, De Ponti K, Wang J, Laffan JJ, Li C, Kalbfleisch J, Williams DL. Anterior pituitary cells express pattern recognition receptors for fungal glucans: implications for neuroendocrine immune involvement in response to fungal infections. Neuroimmunomodulation 2004; 11(1): 1-9.

Calderon-Garciduenas L, Mora-Tiscareno A, Ontiveros E, et al. Air pollution, cognitive deficits and brain abnormalities: a pilot study with children and dogs. Brain and Cognition, vol. 68, no. 2, pp. 117–127, 2008.

Calderon-Garciduenas L, Torres-Jardon R, Kulesza RJ, Park S-B, D’Angiulli A. Air pollution and detrimental effects on children’s brain. The need for a multidisciplinary approach to the issue, complexity and challenges. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, August 2014; 8(613).

Campbell AW, Anyanwu EC, Vojdani A. Combination of high-dose intravenous immunoglobulins and Itraconazole in treating chronic mycotic demyelinating optic neuritis. Scientific World Journal, 2003 Aug 2; 3:640-646.

Campbell AW, Thrasher JD, Gray MR, Vojdani A. Mold and Mycotoxins: Effects on the Neurological and Immune Systems in Humans. Advances in applied microbiology, 2004. 55:375-406.

Campbell AW, Thrasher JD, Madison RA, Vojdani A, Gray MR, Johnson A. Neural autoantibodies and neurophysiologic abnormalities in patients exposed to molds in water-damaged buildings. Arch Environ Health. 2003 Aug 58(8):464-74.

Canadian Construction Association. Mould Guidelines for the Canadian Construction Industry. 2004.

Carey SA, Plopper CG, Hyde DM, Islam Z, Pestka JJ, Harkema JR. Satratoxin-G from the black mold Stachybotrys chartarum induces rhinitis and apoptosis of olfactory sensory neurons in the nasal airways of rhesus monkeys. Toxicologic Pathology 2012; 40:887-898.

Chakrabarti A, Denning DW, Ferguson BJ, Ponikau J, Buzina W, et al. Fungal Rhinosinusitis: A categorization and definitional schema addressing the current controversies. Laryngoscope 2009 119:1809-18.

Charpin-Kadouch C, Maurel G, Felipo R, Queralt J, Ramadour M, Dumon H, Garans M, Botta A, Charpin D. Mycotoxin identification in moldy dwellings. .J Appl Toxicol 2007 Mar-Apr;27(2):19.

Chew GL, Douwes J, Doekes G, Higgins KM, van Strien R, Spithoven J, Brunekreef B. Fungal extracellular polysaccharides, (1-3)-β-glucans and culturable fungi in repeated sampling of house dust. Indoor Air 2001; 11(3): 171-178.

Cho SH, Seo SC, Schmechel D, Grinshpun SA, Reponen A. Aerodynamics and respiratory deposition of fungal fragments. Atmos Environ 2005; 39:5454-65.

Clark HA, Snedeker SM. Ochratoxin A: its cancer risk and potential for exposure. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health B, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 265–296, 2006.

Commonwealth of Massachusetts: Special Legislative Commission on Indoor Air Pollution. Indoor Air Pollution in Massachusetts. April 1989.

Costantini, A.V. Fungalbionics Series: Etiology and Prevention of Atherosclerosis. Johann Freidrich Oberlin Verlag. Freiburg, Germany. 1998/99.

Costantini, A., et al. Prevention of Breast Cancer: Hope at Last. Fungalbionic series. Freiburg, Germany. 1998.

Cooley JD, Wong WC, Jumper CA, Straus DC. Correlation between the prevalence of certain fungi and sick building syndrome. Occup Environ Med 1998; 55: 579-584.

Cox-Ganser JN, White SK, Jones R, Hilsbos K, et al. Respiratory morbidity in office workers in a water-damaged building Environ Health Perspec 2005 223:485-90.

Crago BR, Gray MR, Nelson LA, Davis M, Arnold L, Thrasher JD. Psychological, neuropsychological and electrocortical effects of mixed mold exposure. Arch Environ Health 58:452-63.

Craner J. Building-related illness in occupants of mold-contaminated houses: a case series. Eastern New York Occupational & Environmental Health Center 1999; 146-157.

Creasia DA, Thurman JD, Jones J, Nealley ML, York CG, Wannemacher RW, Bunner DL. Acute inhalation toxicity of T-2 mycotoxin in mice. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology 1987: 8: 230-235.

Creasia DA, Thurman JD, Wannemacher RW, Bunner DL. Acute Inhalation toxicity of T-2 Mycotoxin in the Rat and Guinea Pig. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 54–59, 1990.

Currier MB. The Role of Inflammation in Mediating Risk for Medical Disorders in Depressed Patients. Psychiatr Ann. 2015, 45(5):249-254.

Curtis L, Lieberman A. Adverse health effects of indoor molds. Journal of Nutritional and Environmental Medicine, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 261–274, 2004.

Dangman KH, Bracker AL, Storey E. Work-related asthma in teachers in Connecticut schools with chronic water damage and fungal growth. Connecticut Med 2005; 69:9-17.

Dennis DP. Chronic Sinusitis: Defective T-Cells Responding to Superantigens Treated by Reduction of Fungi in the Nose and Air. Archive Environ Health July 2003 [Vol. 58 (No. 7):433-41.

Dennis D, Robertson D, Curtis L, Black J. Fungal exposure endocrinopathy in sinusitis with growth hormone deficiency: Dennis-Robertson syndrome. Toxicology Indust Health 2009: 25: 669–680.

Dennis DP, Thrasher JD. (2016). Nasal Fungal Pathology and Trichothecenes Associated with Water-Damaged School and Home. Austin Journal of Otolarynology, Volume 3, Issue 1.

Desalegn B, Nanayakkara S, Harada KH, et al. Mycotoxin detection in urine samples from patients with chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology in Sri Lanka. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, vol. 87, no. 1, pp. 6–10, 2011.

Desoubeaux F, Bailey E, Chandenier J. Diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis: Updates and recommendations. Med Mal Infect 2014. http://dx.doi.irg/101016/medmail2013.11.006 (on line).

Doi K, Uetsuka K. Mechanisms of mycotoxin-induced neurotoxicity through oxidative stress-associated pathways. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12, 5213-5237.

Donohue M, Wei W, Wu J, Zawia NH, Hud N, De Jesus V, Schmechel D, Hettick JM, Beezhold DH, Vesper S. Characterization of nigerlysin C, hemolysin produced by Aspergillus niger, and effect on mouse neuronal cells in vitro. Toxicology 2006; 219:150-155.

Douwes J, Siebers R, Wouters I, Doekes G, Fitzharris P, Crane J. Endotoxin, (1->3)-β-D-glucans and fungal extra-cellular polysaccharides in New Zealand homes: a pilot study. Ann Agric Environ Med 2006; 13(2): 361-365.

Duggal P, Wise SK. Chapter 8:Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis. Am J Rhino Allergy 2-13 Suppl 1;s28039.

Empting, LD. Neurologic and neuropsychiatric syndrome features of mold and mycotoxin exposure. Toxicology and Industrial Health. 2009; 25(9-10), 577-581.

Engelhart S, Loock A, Skutlarek D, Sagunski H, et al. Occurrence of toxigenic Aspergillus versicolor isolated and sterigmatocystin in carpet dust from dam indoor environments. Applied Environ Microbiol 2002 68:3886-90.

Etzel, RA. Acute Pulmonary Hemorrhage in Infants Associated with Exposure to Stachybotrys atra and Other Fungi. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med , Vol 152, Aug 1998, 757-762.

Etzel, RA. Indoor Mold and Children's Health. Environmental Health Perspectives , Volume 107, Supplement 3:463, June 1999.

Etzel, RA. Toxic Effects of Indoor Molds. American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Environmental Health, Vol 101, No. 4, April 1998.

Etzel, RA. What the Primary Care Pediatrician Should Know about Syndromes Associated with Exposures to Mycotoxins. Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care. September 2006, 282-305.

Etzel, R. Mycotoxins. Journal of the American Medical Association. 287(4): 425-427. Jan 23/30, 2002.

Fink R, Gilman EA. Biological Contamination of the Building Environment: Sampling and Analysis. Journal of the American Biological Safety Association. 5(1), pp. 19-29. ABSA. 2000.

Fisk WJ, Eliseeva EA, Mendell MJ. An association of residential dampness and mold with respiratory tract infections and bronchitis: a meta-analysis. Environmental Health 2010, 9:72. 1-11.

Fisk WJ, Lei-Gomez Q, Mendell MJ. Meta-Analyses of the associations of respiratory health effects with dampness and mold in homes. Indoor Environment Dept, Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory, Berkley CA 94720, supported by the Indoor Environments Division, Office of Radiation and Indoor Air, Office of Air and Radiation of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Jan 2006, 1-21.

Flemming J, Hudson B, Rand TG. Comparison of inflammatory and cytotoxic lung responses in mice after intrathecal exposure to two different Stachybotrys chartarum strains. Toxicol Sci, 2004; 78:267-75.

Fog Nielsen K. Fungal Genet Biol. 2003 Jul;39(2):103-17. Mycotoxin production by indoor molds. The Mycology Group, Bio Centrum-DTU, Building 221, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800, Kgs Lyngby, Denmark. 

Fogelmark B, Thorn J, Rylander R. Inhalation of (1-3)-β-D-glucan causes airway eosinophilia. Mediators Inflammation. 2001. Feb; 10(1): 13–19.

Foreman A, Psaltis AJ, Tan LW, Wormald P-J. Characterization of bacterial and fungal biofilms in chronic rhinosinusitis. Amer J Rhinology Allergy. 2009. 23:556-61.

Foreman A, Wormald P-J. Different Biofilms, Different Disease? A Clinical Outcomes Study. 2010 Laryngoscope, 120:1701–1706, 2010.

Franklin TC, Wohleb ES, Duman, RS. The Role of Immune Cells in the Brain during Physiological and Pathological Conditions. Psychiatr Ann. 2015. 45(5):232-239.

Friedrich MJ. Unraveling the Influence of Gut Microbes on the Mind. JAMA, May 5, 2015. Volume 313, Number 17:1699-1701.

Gao P, Frederick K, Martin J, Chen BT. 2002. Determination of unique microbial volatile compounds produced by five Aspergillus species commonly found in problem buildings. AJIHA Journal 63:135-39.

Gao P, Martin J. 2002. Volatile metabolites by three strains of Stachybotrys chartarum cultivated on rice and gypsum board. Appl Occup Environ Hyg 17:430-6.

Gehring U, Douwes J, Doekes G, Koch A, Bischof W, Fahlbusch B, Richter K, Wichmann HE, Heinrich J, INGA Study Group. Indoor factors and genetics in asthma. (1-3)-β-glucan in house dust of German homes: housing characteristics, occupant behavior, and relations with endotoxins, allergens, and molds. Environ Health Perspect 2001; 109(2): 139-144.

Giovannangelo ME, Gehring U, Nordling E, Oldenwening M, van Rijswijk K, de Wind S, Hoek G, Heinrich J, Bellander T, Brunekreef B. Levels and determinants of (1-3)-β-glucans and fungal extracellular polysaccharides in house dust of (pre-) school children in three European countries. Environ Int 2007; 33(1): 9-16.

Goldstein GB. Adverse reactions to fungal metabolic products in mold-contaminated areas. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2006; 118:760-761.

Gomez P, Hackert T, Moore Mm, Knight DA, Tebuttt SJ. Functional genomics of human bronchial epithelial cells directly interacting with conidia of Aspergillus fumigatus BMC Genomics 2010 11:358.

Gordon KE, Masotti RE, Waddell WR. Tremorgenic encephalopathy: a role of mycotoxins in the production of CNS disease in humans? Can J Neurol Sci. 1993 Aug;20(3):237-9.Department of Pediatrics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. 

Gordon WA, Cantor JB. The diagnosis of cognitive impairment associated with exposure to mold Advances in Applied Microbiology 2004 , Vol 55:361-374.

Gordon WA, Cantor JB, Johanning E, Charatz HJ, Ashman TA, Breeze JL, Haddad L, Abramowitz S. Cognitive impairment associated with toxigenic fungal exposure: a replication and extension of previous findings. Applied Neuropsychology 2004, 11 (2), 65-74.

Gorman GS, Elson JL, Newman J, Payne G, McFarland R, et al. Perceived fatigue is highly prevalent and debilitating in patients with mitochondrial disease. Neuromuscular Disorders 2015, doi: 10.10161 (on line).

Gorny RL. Filamentous microorganisms and their fragments in indoor air - A review. Ann Agric Environ Med 2004; 11: 185-197.

Gorny R, Reponen T. Fungal fragments as indoor air biocontaminants. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 68, no. 7, pp. 3522–3531, 2002.

Gorny RL, Mainelis G, Grinshpun SA, Willeke K, Dutkiewicz J, Reponen T. Release of Streptomyces albus propagules from contaminated surfaces. Environmental Research 2003; 91: 45-53.

Gottschalk C, Bauer J, Meyer K. Detection of satratoxin G and H in indoor air from a water-damaged building. Mycopathologia. 2008 Aug;166(2):103-7.

Gottschalk C, Bauer J, Meyer K. Determination of macrocyclic trichothecenes in mouldy indoor materials by LC-MS/MS. Mycotoxin Research 3:189-92.

Grandjean P, Landrigan PJ. Neurobehavioural effects of developmental toxicity. Lancet Neurol 2014; 13: 330–38.

Grant IH. Clinical Spectrum, Risks for Progressive Disease and Response To Antifungal Therapy Following Environmental Exposure To Aspergillus-Penicillium. Mycoses 2011; 54 (Supplement 2): 97.

Grant IH. Markers for Illness and Progression following Environmental Exposure to Stachybotrys: Mycoses 2011; 54 (Supplement 2): 97.

Grant IH. Reversing Persistent Debility After Past Heavy Environmental Mold Exposure and Immune: In: Abstract Book of the 30th Congress of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Istanbul, Turkey. June 2011. 

Grant IH, Rini JF. Immune Risks for Persistent Debility after Mold Exposure & Response to Antifungal Biofilm Therapy, Journal of General Internal Medicine, Volume 27, Supplement 2, July 2012: pages S216-217.

Gray MR, Hooper D, Thrasher JD (2014). Molds and Mycotoxins in Autopsy Specimens in a Death Related to Fungal Pneumonia and Pancytopenia, Marijuana Usage and a Water-Damaged Home: A Case Report. Inter Journal of Toxicology, 2, 11-20. 

Gray MR, Thrasher JD, Hooper D, Crago R (2014). A Case of Reyes-Like Syndrome in a 68-Day Old Infant: Water Damaged Home, Mold, Bacteria and Aflatoxins. Inter Journal of Toxicology, 2, 42-54.

Gray MR, Thrasher JD, Crago R, Madison RA, Arnold L, Campbell AW, Vojdani A. Mixed mold mycotoxicosis: immunological changes in humans following exposure in water-damaged buildings. Arch Environ Health, 2003 Jul; 58(7):410-420.

Gray MR, Thrasher JD, Hooper D, Dumanov MJ, Cravens R, Jones T. Sphenoid Aspergilloma: Diagnosed as a Malignancy: A Case Report. Otolaryngology. Volume 5, Issue 2. 2015.

Green BJ, Tovey ER, Sercombe JK, Blachere FM, Beezhold DH, Schmechel D. Air borne fungal fragments and allergenicity Med Mycol. 2006 Sep; 44 Suppl 1:S245-55.

Guidelines on Assessment and Remediation of Fungi in Indoor Environments. New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. November 2008.

Guo C, Ghadersohi S, Kephart GM, Laine RA, Sherris DA, Kita H, Ponikau RJ. Improving the detection of fungi in eosinophilic mucin: Seeing what we could not see before. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2012 147:943-9.

Hardcastle SL, Brenu EW, Johnston S, Ngyyen T, Huth R et al. Characterization of cell functions and receptors in chronic fatigue syndrome/Myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME). BMC immunology 16:35 (online).

Hirotsu M, et al. Fungal Extracts Detected in Eosinophilic Chronic Rhinosinusitis Induced Cytokines from the Nasal Polyp Cells. The Laryngoscope VC 2014. The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc. 2014.

Hirvonen MR, Huttunen K, Reponen M. Bacterial strains from moldy buildings are highly potent inducers of inflammatory and cytotoxic effects. Indoor Air 2005; 15 (Suppl 9). 65-70.

Hodgson MJ, Morey P, Leung WY, Morrow L, Miller D, Jarvis BB, Robbins H, Halsey JF, Storey E. Building-associated pulmonary disease from exposure to Stachybotrys chartarum and Aspergillus versicolor. J Occup Environ Med 1998; 40(3):241-249.

Hooper DG, Bolton VE, Guildford FT, Straus DC. Mycotoxin Detection in Human Samples from Patients Exposed to Environmental Molds. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2009, 10, 1465-1475; doi:10.3390/ijms10041465.

Hope J H, Hope BE. A review of diagnosis and treatment of ochratoxin A inhalational exposure associated with human kidney disease including focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. J Environmental Public Health. 2011. Article ID 835059, 10 pages.

Hope JH. A review of the mechanism of injury and treatment approaches for illness resulting from exposure to water-damaged buildings, mold and mycotoxins. The Scientific World Journal 2013, Volume, Article ID 767482, 20 pages.

Horton DB, Scott FI, Haynes K, Putt ME, Rose CD, Lewis JD, Strom BL. Antibiotic Exposure and Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: A Case-Control Study. Pediatrics, Volume 136, number 2, August 2015.

Hoyle JC, Jablonski C, Newton HB. Neurosarcoidosis: Clinical review of a disorder with challenging inpatient presentations and diagnostic considerations. The Neurohospitalist. 3:94-101, 2014.

Huttunen K, Hyvarinen A, Nevalainen A, Komulainen H, Hirvonen M. Production of proinflammatory mediators by indoor bacteria and fungal spores in mouse and human cell lines. Environ Health Perspect 2002; 111:85-92.

Huttunen K, Pelkonen J, Nielsen KF, Nuutinen U, Jussila J, Hirvonen MR. Synergistic interaction in simultaneous exposure to Streptomyces californicus and Stachybotrys chartarum. Environmental Health Perspectives 2004; 112(4): 659-665.

Hymery N, Leon K, Carpentier F, Jung J, Parent-Massin D. T-2 toxin inhibits the differentiation of human monocytes into dendritic cells and macrophages. Toxicol In Vitro 2009; 3: 509-19.

Inamdar AA, et al. Fungal-derived semiochemical 1-octen-3-ol disrupts dopamine packaging and causes neurodegeneration. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2013.

Inoue KI, Takno H, Yanagisawa R, Hirano S, Sakurai M, Shimada A, Yoshikawa T. Effects of airway exposure to nanoparticles on lung inflammation induced by bacterial endotoxin in mice. Environmental Health Perspectives 2006; 114(9): 1325-1330.

Institute of Inspection Cleaning and Restoration Certification (IICRC). Standard and Reference Guide for Professional Mold Remediation S520. 2008.

Institute of Medicine (IOM). Beyond Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Redefining an Illness. The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C. 2015.

Islam Z, Amuzie CJ, Harkema JR, Pestka JJ. Neurotoxicity and inflammation in the nasal airways of mice exposed to the macrocyclic trichothecene mycotoxin roridin A: kinetics and potentiation by bacterial lipopolysaccharide coexposure. Toxicological Sciences, vol. 98, no. 2, pp. 526–541, 2007.

Islam Z, Pestka JJ. Role of IL-1beta in endotoxin potentiation of deoxynivalenol induced corticosterone response and leukocyte apoptosis in mice. Toxicol Sci 2003; 74(1): 93-102.

Islam Z, Harkema JR, Pestka JJ. Satratoxin G from the black mold Stachybotrys chartarum evokes olfactory sensory neuron loss and inflammation in the murine nose and brain. Environ Health Perspect. 2006 Jul; 114(7):1099-107. 

Islam Z, Hegg CC, Bae HK, Pestka JJ. Satratoxin G-induced apoptosis in PC-12 neuronal cells is mediated by PKR and caspase independent Toxicol Sci. 2008 Sep;105(1):142-52. Epub 2008 Jun 4 Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824-1224, USA.

Islam Z, Nagase M, Ota A, Ueda S, Yoshizawa T, Sakato N. Structure-function relationship of T-2 toxin and its metabolites in inducing thymic apoptosis in vivo in mice. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 1998 Aug;62(8):1492-7.

Islam Z, Amuzie CJ, Harkema JR, Pestka JJ. Neurotoxicity and inflammation in the nasal airways of mice exposed to the macrocyclic trichothecene roridin A: Kinetics and potentiation by bacterial lipopolysaccharides. Toxicol Sci 2007; 98:526-41.

Jaakkola JJK, Hwang BF, Jaakkola N. Home dampness and molds, parental atopy, and asthma in childhood: a six-year population-based cohort study. Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 113, no. 3, pp. 357–361. 2005.

Jaakkola JJK, Ieromnimon A, Jaakkola MS. Interior surface materials and asthma in adults: a population-based incident case-control study. American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 164, no. 8, pp. 742–749. 2006.

Jackson JR, Eaton WW, Cascella NG, Fasano A, Kelly DL. (2012) Neurologic and psychiatric manifestations of celiac disease and gluten sensitivity. The Psychiatric Quarterly, vol. 83, no. 1, pp. 91–102.

Jarvis BB, Miller JD. Mycotoxins as harmful indoor air contaminants. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2005; 66(4): 367-372.

Jedrychowski W, Maurgeri U, Perera F, Stigter L, et al. Cognitive impairment of 6-year old children exposed to mold-contaminated homes in early postnatal period. Prospective birth cohort study in Poland. Physiology and Behavior 2011 204:989-95.

Johanning E, Biagini R, Hull D, Morey P, Jarvis B, Landsbergis P. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 1996;68(4):207-18. Health and immunology study following exposure to toxigenic fungi (Stachybotrys chartarum) in a water-damaged office environment.

Johanning E, Landsbergis P, Gareis M, Yang CS, Olmsted E Clinical experience and results of a Sentinel Health Investigation related to indoor fungal exposure. Environ Health Perspect. 1999. Jun; 107 Suppl 3:489-94. 

Jussila J, Komulainen H, Kosma VM, Nevalainen A, Pelkonen J, M. R. Hirvonen MR. Spores of Aspergillus versicolor isolated from indoor air of a moisture-damaged building provoke acute inflammation in mouse lungs. Inhalation Toxicology, vol. 14, no. 12, pp. 1261–1277, 2002.

Kankkunen P, Rintahaka J, Aalto A, et al. Trichothecene mycotoxins activate inflammatory response in human macrophages. Journal of Immunology, vol. 182, no. 10, pp. 6418–6425, 2009.

Karunasena E. The mechanisms of neurotoxicity induced by a Stachybotrys chartarum trichothecene mycotoxin in an in vitro model. A dissertation in microbiology and immunology, submitted to the graduate faculty of Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy . i-ix, 1-114.

Karunasena E, Larranaga MD, Simoni JS, Douglas DR, Straus DC. Building-associated neurological damage modeled in human cells: a mechanism of neurotoxic effects by exposure to mycotoxins in the indoor environment. Mycopathologia 2010;170:377-390.

Karvala K, Nordman H, Luiikkonen R, Nykyri E, et al. Occupational rhinitis in damp and mold workplaces. Am J Rhinol 22:457-62.

Karvala K, Toskala E, Luukkonen R, Lappalainen S, Uitti J, Nordman H. New-onset adult asthma in relation to damp and moldy workplaces. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, vol. 83, no. 8, pp. 855–865, 2010.

Kettleson E, Kumar S, Reponen T, Vesper S, Meheust D, et al. Stenotrophomonas, Nycobacterium, and Streptomyces in home dust and air: associations with moldiness and other home/family characteristics. Indoor Air 2013 23:387-95.

Kilburn KH. Role of molds and mycotoxins in being sick in buildings: neurobehavioral and pulmonary impairment Adv Appl Microbiol. 2004; 55:339-59. University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine Environmental Sciences Laboratory Alhambra, California 91803, USA. PMID: 15350801.

Kilburn KH. Indoor mold exposure associated with neurobehavioral and pulmonary impairment: A preliminary report. Ach Environmental Health 2003 Jul; 58(7):390-8.

Kilburn KH. Neurobehavioral and pulmonary impairment in 105 adults with indoor exposure to molds compared to 100 exposed to chemicals. Toxicol Ind Health. 2009 Oct-Nov; 25(9-10):681-92.

Kilburn KH, Thrasher JD, Nina I. Do terbutaline- and mold-associated impairments of the brain and lung related to autism? Toxicology and Industrial Health 2009 25:681-92.

Kilburn KH. Towards healthy homes Toxicol Ind Health 2009 25(9-10):737-740.

Kilburn KH. Summary of the 5th International Conference on Bioaerosols, Fungi, Bacteria, Mycotoxins, and Human Health. Arch Environ Health. 2003 Aug; 58(8):538-42. 

Kilburn KH, Gray M, Kramer S. Nondisclosure of conflicts of interest is perilous to the advancement of science. Allergy Clin Immunol 2006; 118:766-767.

King N, Auger P. Indoor air quality, fungi and health. How do we stand? Can Fam Physician 2002; 48: 298-302.

Klich MA. Health effects of Aspergillus in food and air. Toxicology and Industrial Health, vol. 25, no. 9-10, pp. 657–667, 2009.

Kouadio JH, Dano SD, Moukha S, Mobio TA, Creppy EE. Effects of combinations of Fusarium mycotoxins on the inhibition of macromolecular synthesis, malondialdehyde levels, DNA methylation and fragmentation, and viability in Caco-2 cells. Toxicon 2007; 49(3): 306-317.

Kouadio JH, Mobio TA, Baudrimont I, Moukha S, Dano SD, Creppy EE. Comparative study of cytotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by deoxynivalenol, zearalenone or fumonisin B1 in human intestinal cell line Caco-2. Toxicology 2005; 213(1-2): 56-65.

Kourbeti IS, Mylonakis E. Fungal central nervous system infections: prevalence and diagnosis. Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy. 2014. Early online, 1–9.

Kovacikova Z, Tatrai E, Pieckova E, Tulinska J, Pivovarova Z, Matausic-Pisl M, Kuricova M, Wsolova L. An in vitro study of the toxic effects of Stachybotrys chartarum metabolites on lung cells. ATLA 2007; 35: 47-52.

Laney AS, Cragin LA, Blevins LZ, Summer AD, Cox-Ganser JM, et al Sarcoidosis, asthma and asthma-like symptoms among occupants of a historically water-damaged office building. Indoor Air 2009 19:83-90.

Langrand C, Bihan H, Raverot Gm Varron L, Androdias G, et al. Hypothalomo-pituitary sarcoidsosis: A multicenter study of 24 patients. Q J Med. 2012 Oct; 105(10):981-95.

Larsen TO, Svendsen A, Smedsgaard J. Biochemical characterization of ochratoxin A-producing strains of the genus penicillium. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 67, no. 8, pp. 3630–3635, 2001.

Larsson P, Tjalve H. Intranasal instillation of aflatoxin B1 in rats: bioactivation in the nasal mucosa and neuronal transport to the olfactory bulb. Toxicological Sciences, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 383–391, 2000.

Layton RC, Purdy CW, Jumper CA, Straus DC. Detection of macrocyclic trichothecene mycotoxin in a caprine (goat) tracheal instillation model. Toxicology and Industrial Health, vol. 25, no. 9-10, pp. 693–701, 2009.

Lewis RE, et al. Detection of Gliotoxin in Experimental and Human Aspergillosis. Infection and Immunity, Jan. 2005, p. 635–637.

Li Ow and Yang CS. 2004. Fungal contamination as a major contributor to Sick Building Syndrome. Adv Appl Microbiol 55:32-112.

Lichtenstein JHR, et al. Environmental Mold and Mycotoxin Exposures Elicit Specific Cytokine and Chemokine Responses. PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0126926 May 26, 2015.

Lichtenstein JH, Hsu Y-H, Conaghey TC, Molina M et al. Environmental mold and mycotoxin exposures elicit specific cytokine and chemokine responses. PLOS One 10:e0126926, 2015 (on line).

Lieberman, A, Rea W, Curtis L. Adverse health effects of indoor mold exposure. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2006; 118:763.

Liu J, Wang Y, Cui J, et al. Ochratoxin A induces oxidative DNA damage and G1 phase arrest in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro. Toxicology Letters, vol. 211, no. 2, pp. 164–171, 2012.
Other research papers
Marinkovich VA. Position paper on molds is seriously flawed. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2006; 118:761-762.

Martin LJ, Doebler JA, Anthony A. Scanning cytophotometric analysis of brain neuronal nuclear chromatin changes in acute T-2 toxin-treated rats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1986; 85(2): 207-214.

Martin LJ, Morse JD, Anthony A. Quantitative cytophotometric analysis of brain neuronal RNA and protein changes in acute T-2 mycotoxin poisoned rats. Toxicon 1986; 24(9): 933-941.

Mason CD, Rand TG, Oulton M, MacDonald JM, Scott JE. Effects of Stachybotrys chartarum (atra) conidia and isolated toxin on lung surfactant production and homeostasis. Natural Toxins 1998; 6: 27-33.

Mazur LJ, Kim J, the Committee in Environmental Health: Spectrum of Noninfectious Health Effects From Molds. American academy of pediatrics. Pediatrics 2006 Vol. 11, 1909-1926. 

McCarthy M, Rosengart A, Schuetz AN, Kontoyiannis DP, Walsh TJ. Mold Infections of the Central Nervous System. N Engl J Med 2014; 371:150-60.

McMahon SW, Hope J, Thrasher JD, Rea WJ, W. Vinitsky AR, and Gray MR. Global Indoor Health Network: Common Toxins in Our Homes, Schools and Workplaces,” December 2012.

Meloche JL, Smith TK. Altered tissue amino acid metabolism in acute T-2 toxicosis. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1995; 210(3): 260-265.

Mendell MJ, Mirer AG, Cheung K, et. Al., Respiratory and Allergic and Health Effects of Dampness, Mold and Dampness-related Agents: A Review of Epidemiologic Evidence Environ. Health Perspectives vol.119:748-756 (2011). 

Mercan M, Akyol , Karaman Y, Bollay H. A case of sarcoidosis of the central nervous system and orbita. Case Reports in Medicine. 2015, ID 403459, 3 pages (On Line).

Mijajlovic M, Mirkovic A, Mihailovic-Vucci V, Covickovi-Sternic N. Neurosarcoidosis: Two case reports with multiple cranial nerve involvement and review of literature. Biomed PAP Far Univ Palacky Olomoc Czech Repub 158:662-67, 2014.

Miller JD, Haisley PD, Reinhardt JH. Air Sampling Results in Relation to Extent of Fungal Colonization of Building Materials in Some Water-Damaged Buildings. Indoor Air 2000, 10:146-151.

Miller JD, Sun M, Bilyan A, Roy J, Rand TG. Inflammation-associated gene transcription and expression in mouse lungs induced by low molecular weight compounds from fungi from the built environment. Chemic-Biological Interactions 2010 183:113-24.

Miller JD, Sun M, Gilyan A, Roy J, Rand TG. Inflammation-associated gene transcription and expression induced by low molecular weight compounds from fungi from the built environment. Chemic-Biological Interactions 2010 183:113-124. 

MMWR Health concerns associated with mold in water-damaged homes after hurricanes Katrina and Rita- New Orleans area, Louisiana October 2005. Morbidity Mortality Weekly Rep. 2006, 35, JAN 20, 41-44. 

Morris F, Berk M. Many roads to mitochondrial dysfunction in neuroimmune neuropsychiatric disorders. BMC Medicine 2015, 13:68 (online).

Mudarri D, Fisk WJ. Public health and economic impact of dampness and mold. Indoor Air 2007; 17: 226-236.

Mukhopadhyay S, Farver CF, Vaszar LG, Dempsey OJ, et al. Causes of pulmonary granulomas: a retrospective study of 500 case from seven countries. J. Clin Pathol 2012 65:517.

Murtoniemi T, Penttinen P, Nevalainen A, Hirvonen MR. Effects of microbial cocultivation on inflammatory and cytotoxic potential of spores. Inhal Toxicol 2005; 17(12): 681-693.

Nagase M, Alam MM, Tsushima A, Yoshizawa T, Sakato N. Apoptosis induction by T-2 toxin: activation of caspase-9, caspase-3, and DFF-40/CAD through cytosolic release of cytochrome c in HL-60 cells. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2001 Aug; 65(8):1741-7.

National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). NIOSH Alert: Preventing Occupational Respiratory Disease from Exposures Caused by Dampness in Office Buildings, Schools, and Other Nonindustrial Buildings. November 2012.

Nielsen KF, Holm G, Uttrup LP, Nielsen PA. Mould growth on building materials under low water activities. Influence of humidity and temperature on fungal growth and secondary metabolism. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation 2004; 54: 325-336.

Nieminen SM, Karki R, Auriola S, Toivola M, Laatsch H, Laatikainen R, Hyvarinen A, von Wright A. Isolation and identification of Aspergillus fumigatus mycotoxins on growth medium and some building materials. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2002; 68(10): 4871-4875.

Nikulin M, Pasanen AL, Berg S, Hintikka EL. Stachybotrys atra Growth and Toxin Production in Some Building Materials and Fodder under Different Relative Humidities. Appl Environ Microbiol 1994 Sep;60(9):3421-3424.

Ochiai E, Kamei K, Hiroshima K, Watanabe A, Hashimoto Y, Sato A, Ando A. The pathogenicity of Stachybotrys chartarum. Jpn J Med Mycol 2005; 46: 109-117.

Omar RF, Gelboin HV, Rahimtula AD. Effect of cytochrome P450 induction on the metabolism and toxicity of ochratoxin A. Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 207–216, 1996.

Park JH, Schleiff PL, Attfield MD, et.al. Building-related respiratory symptoms can be predicted with semi-quantitative indices of exposure to dampness and mold. Indoor Air 2004; 14: 425-433.

Park J-H, Cox-Ganser JM, Kreiss K, White SK, Rao CV. Hydrophilic fungi and ergosterol associated with respiratory illness in a water-damaged building. Environ Health Perspec 2008 116:45-50.

Park J-H, Kreiss K, Cox-Ganser JM. Rhinosinusitis as risk factors for asthma symptoms in occupants of a water-damaged building. Indoor Air 2012 22:395-404.

Park J-H, Cox-Ganser JM. Mold exposure and respiratory health in damp indoor environments. Frotiers Biosci 2011 E3:757-71.

Park J-H, Kreiss K, Cox-Ganser JM. Rhinosinusitis as risk factors for asthma symptoms in occupants of a water-damaged building. Indoor Air 2012 22:395-404.

Peltola JSP, Andersson MA, Haahtela T, Mussalo-Rauhamaa J, Rainey F, Kroppenstedt RM, Samson RA, Salkinoja-Salonen MS. 2001. Toxic metabolite producing bacteria and fungus in an indoor environment. Appl Environ Microbiol 67:3269-74.

Peltola JSP, Andersson MA, Kamper P, Auling G, Kroppenstedt RM, Busse HJ, Salkinoja-Salonen MS, Rainey FA. 2001. Isolation of toxigenic Nocardiopsis strains from indoor environments and description of two new Nocardiopsis species, N.exhalans sp. novo and N. umidischolae sp. novo Appl Environ Microbiol 67:4293-4304.

Pena TA, Soubani AO, Samavati L. Aspergillosis lung disease in patients with sarcoidosis: A case series and review of the literature. Lung 2011 189:157-72.

Penttinen P, Pelkonen J, Huttunen K, Hirvonen MR. Co-cultivation of Streptomyces with Streptomyces californicus and Stachybotrys chartarum stimulates the production of cytostatic compound(s) with immunotoxic properties. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 2006; 217: 342-351.

Penttinen P, Huttunen K, Pelkonen J, Hirvonen MR. The proportions of Streptomyces californicus and Stachybotrys chartarum in simultaneous exposure affect inflammatory responses in mouse RAW264.7 macrophages. Inhal Toxicol 2005; 17(2): 79-85.

Peraica M, et al. Bulletin of the World Health Organization (WHO). Toxic Effects of Mycotoxins in Humans. 1999.

Pestka JJ, Yike I, Dearborn DG, Ward MD, Harkema. Stachybotrys chartarum, trichothecene mycotoxins, and damp building-related illness: new insights into a public health enigma. Toxicol Sci. 2008 Jul 104(1):4-26.

Pieckova E, Hurbankova M, Cerna S, Pivovarova Z, Kovacikova Z. Pulmonary cytotoxicity of secondary metabolites of Stachybotrys chartarum (EHRENB.) Hughes. Ann Agric Environ Med 2006; 13:259-62.

Polizzi V, Adams A, Malysheva SV, De Saeger S, Van Peteghen C, et al. Identification of volatile markers of indoor fungal growth and chemotaxonomic classification of Aspergillus species. Fungal Biology 2012 116:941-53.

Polizzi V, Delmulle B, Adams A, Moretti A, Susca A, et al. JEM spotlight: Fungi, mycotoxins and microbial volatile organic compounds in mouldy interiors from water-damaged buildings. J Environ Monitoring 2009 Oct;11(10):1849-58. doi: 10.1039/b906856b. Epub 2009 Jul 20.

Ponikau E, Frigas J, Gaffey T, Roberts G. The diagnosis and incidence of allergic fungal sinusitis. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, vol. 74, no. 9, pp. 877–884. 1999.

Ponikau JU, Sherris DA. The role of airborne mold in chronic rhinosinusitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2006; 118:762-763.

Raison CL, Miller AH. Anti-Inflammatory Agents as Anti-Depressants: Truth or Dare. Psychiatr Ann. 2015. 45(5):255-261.

Ramage G, Mowat E, Jones B, Williams C, Lopes-Ribot J. Our current understanding of fungal biofilms. Crit Rev Microbiol 35:340.

Rand TG, Flemming J, David Miller J, Womiloju TO. Comparison of inflammatory responses in mouse lungs exposed to atranones A and C from Stachybotrys chartarum. J Toxicol Environ Health A 2006; 69(13): 1239-1251.

Rand TG, Giles S, Flemming J, Miller JD, Puniani E. Inflammatory and cytotoxic responses in mouse lungs exposed to purified toxins from building isolated Penicillium brevicompactum dierckx and P. chrysogenum thom. Toxicological Sciences 2005; 87(1):213-222.

Rand TG, Mahoney M, White K, Oulton M. Microanatomical changes in alveolar type II cells in juvenile mice. Toxicol Sci 2002; 65:239-45.

Rao CY, Brain JD, Burge HA. Reduction of pulmonary toxicity of Stachybotrys chartarum spores by methanol extraction of mycotoxins. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2000; 66(7): 2817-2821.

Rao CY, Riggs MA, Chew GL, Muilenburg ML, Thorne PS, Van Sickle D, Dunn KH, Brown C. Characterization of airborne molds, endotoxins, and glucans in homes in New Orleans after hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Appl Environ Microbiol 2007; 73:1630-4.

Rao CY, Cox-Ganser JM, Chew GL , Doekes G, White S. (2005) Use of surrogate markers of biological agents in air and settled dust samples to evaluate a water-damaged hospital. Indoor Air 2005;15 (suppl 9):89-97.

Rea WJ, Pan Y, Griffiths B. The Treatment of Patients with Mycotoxin-induced Disease. Toxicology and Industrial Health 25(9-10) 711-714.

Rea WJ, Didriksen N, Simon TR, Pan Y, Fenyves EJ, Griffiths B. Effects of toxic exposure to molds and mycotoxins in building-related illnesses Arch Environ Health. 2003 Jul; 58(7):399-405.

Reijula K, Tuomi T. Mycotoxins of aspergilli: exposure and health effects. Front Biosci 2003; 8: s232-235.

Reponen T, Seo S-C, Grimsley F, Lee T, et al. 2007. Fungal fragments in moldy houses: a field study in homes in New Orleans and Southern Ohio. Atmos Environ 41:8140-49.

Richard JL, Plattner RD, May J, Liska SL. The occurrence of Ochratoxin A in dust collected from a problem household. Mycopathologia, vol. 146, no. 2, pp. 99–103, 1999.

Ringot D, Chango A, Schneider Y-J, Larondelle Y. Toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of ochratoxin A, an update. 2006 Chemic-Biological Interactions 159:18-46.

Rini JF, Grant IH. Neurological Disease After Mold Exposure, Immune Risks & Response to Biofilm-Focused Antifungal Therapy. In Abstracts: 52nd Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, American Society for Microbiology, San Francisco CA, September 10, 2012, M-1063. p 113.

Rosenblum Lichtenstein JH, Hsu Y-H, Gavin IM, Donaghey TC, Molina RM, Thompson KJ, Chi C-L, Gillis BS, Brain JD. Environmental Mold and Mycotoxin Exposures Elicit Specific Cytokine and Chemokine Responses. 2015. PLoS ONE 10(5): e0126926. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0126926.

Rosenblum Lichtenstein JH, Molina RM, Donaghey TC, Brain JD. Strain differences influence murine pulmonary responses to Stachybotrys chartarum. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2006; 35(4): 415-423. 

Ryan TJ, Beaucham C. Dominant microbial volatile organic compounds in 23 US homes. Chemosphere, vol. 90, no. 3, pp. 977–985, 2013.

Rylander R. Airborne (1-3)-beta-D-glucan and airway disease in a day care center before and after renovation. Arch Environ Health. 1997. 52:281-5.

Rylander R. Investigations of the relationship between disease and airborne (1-3)-β-D-glucan in buildings. Mediators Inflammation 1997 6:275-77.

Rylander R. Microbial Cell Wall Agents and Sick Building Syndrome. Advances in Applied Microbiology, 2004, Vol. 55.

Rylander R, Norhall M, Engdahl U, Tunsater A, Holt PG. 1998. Airway inflammation, atopy and (1-3)-beta-D-glucan exposure in two schools. Amer J Respir Crit Care Med 158:1685-1687.

Rylander R. 1999. Indoor air-related effects of airborne (1-3)-Beta-D-glucan. Environ Health Perspect 107 Suppl 3:501-3.

Rylander R. 2004. Microbial cell wall agents and sick building syndrome. Adv Appl Microbiol 55:139-54.

Santilli J. Health effects of mold exposure in public schools. Current Allergy and Asthma Reports 2002; 2: 460-467.

Schoental R. Fusarial mycotoxins and behaviour: possible implications for psychiatric disorder. Br J Psychiatry 1985; 146: 115-119.

Schuchardt S, Strube A. Microbial volatile organic compounds in moldy interiors: a long-term climate chamber study. Journal of Basic Microbiology, 2012.

Schwab CJ, Straus DC. 2004. Roles of Penicillium and Aspergillus in sick building syndrome. Adv Appl Microbiol 55:215-38.

Seo S-C, Reponen T, Levin L, Borchdelt T, Grinshpun SA. Aerosolization of particulate (1-3)-β-glucan from moldy materials. Appl Environ Microbiol 2008 74:585-93.

Seo S-C, Reponen T, Levin L, Grinshpun SA. 2009. Size-fractionated (1-3)-beta-D-glucan concentrations aerosolized from different moldy building materials. Sci Total Environ.407:806-14.

Sharma D, Mahajan N, Rao S, Khurana N, Jain S. Invasive maxillary aspergillosis masquerading as malignancy in toe cases of cytology and rapid diagnostic tool. J Cytol 2012 29:194-96.

Shenassa ED, Daskalakis C, Liebhaber A, Braubach M, Brown MJ. Dampness and mold in the home and depression: an examination of mold-related illness and perceived control of one’s home as possible depression pathways. American Journal of Public Health 2007; 97(10): 1-7.

Shoemaker R, House D. A time-series of sick building syndrome; chronic, biotoxin-associated illness from exposure to water-damaged buildings. Neurotoxicology and Teratology 2005; 27(1) 29-46.

Shoemaker RC, House DE. Sick building syndrome and exposure to water-damaged buildings: Time series study, clinical trial and mechanisms. Neurotoxicol Teratol 28:573-88. 2006.

Shoemaker RC, Maizel MS. Innate immunity, MR spectroscopy, HLA DR, TGF beta-1, VIP and capillary hypoperfusion define acute and chronic human illness acquired following exposure to water-damaged buildings. Surviving Mold, n.d. Web. June 2011.

Siddiqui A, Shah AA, Bashir SH Craniocerebral aspergillosis of sinonasal origin in immunocompetent patients: Clinical Spectrum 2004 Neurosurgery 55:602-13.

Sidell FR, Takafuji ET, Franz DR. Medical aspects of chemical and biological warfare. 1997; NLM Unique ID: 9709389.

Skaug MA, Eduard W, Stormer FC. Ochratoxin A in airborne dust and fungal conidia. Mycopathologia 2001; 151(2): 93-98.

Smoragiewicz W, Cossette B, Boutard A, Krzystyniak K. Trichothecene mycotoxins in the dust of ventilation systems in office buildings. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 1993; 65: 113-117.

Solomon GM, Hjelmroos-Koski M, Rotkin-Ellman M, Hammond SK. Airborne mold and endotoxin concentrations in New Orleans, Louisiana, after flooding, October through November 2005. Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 114, no. 9, pp. 1381–1386, 2006.

Sordillo JE, Alwis UK, Hoffman E, Gold DR, Milton DK. Home characteristics as predictors of bacterial and fungal microbial biomarkers in house dust. Environ Health Perspec 2010 119:189-95.

Sorenson WG, Frazer DG, Jarvis BB, Simpson J, Robinson VA. Trichothecene mycotoxins in aerosolized conidia of Stachybotrys atra. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 1987; 53(6): 1370-1375.

Spaan S, Heederik DJJ, Thorne PS, Wouters IM. Optimization of airborne endotoxin exposure assessment: effects of filter type, transport conditions, extraction solutions, and storage of samples and extracts. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2007; 73(19):6134-6143.

Storey E, Dangman KH, Schenck P, DeBarnardo RL, Yang CS, Bracker A, Hodgson MJ. Guidance for Clinicians on the Recognition and Management of Health Effects related to Mold Exposure and Moisture Indoors. University of Connecticut, Health Center Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Center for Indoor Environments and Health. Funded and reviewed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). September 30, 2004.

Straus DC, Wilson SC, Respirable trichothecene mycotoxins can be demonstrated in the air of Stachybotrys chartarum-contaminated buildings J Allergy Clin Immunol 2006; 118:760.

Straus D. Molds. Mycotoxins and sick building syndrome. Toxicology and Industrial Health 2009. Vol 25(9-10), 617-635.

Smoragiewicz W, Cossette B, Boutard A, Krzystyniak K. Trichothecene mycotoxins in the dust of ventilation systems in office buildings. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 1991 65:113-7.

Svoboda D, Grady HJ, Higginson J. Aflatoxin B1 injury in rat and monkey liver. Am J Pathol. 1966 Dec; 49(6):1023-51. 

Takuma T, Okada K, Yamagata A, Shimono N, Niki Y. Mold colonization of fiberglass insulation of the air distribution system: effects on patients with hematological malignancies. Medical Mycology February 2011, 49, 150–156.

Taubel M, Sulyok M, Vishwanath V, Bloom E, et al Co-occurrence of toxic bacterial and fungal secondary metabolites in moisture-damaged indoor environments. Indoor Air 2011 Oct;21(5):368-75. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0668.2011.00721.x. Epub 2011 May 18.

Taylor MJ, Smart RA, Sharma RP. Relationship of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis with chemically induced immunomodulation. I. Stress-like response after exposure to T-2 toxin. Toxicology 1989; 56(2): 179-195.

Tercelj M, Rott T, Rylander R. Antifungal treatment in sarcoidosis--a pilot intervention trial. Respir Med. 2007 Apr; 101(4):774-8.

Tercelj M, Rylander R. Sarcoidosis and Fungi: The case for relation. In: M. D. Connor et al, eds. Sarcoidosis. Nova Science Publisher, 2012, Chapter 7, pp 133-43. 

Tercelj M, Salobir B, Harlander M, Rylander R. Fungal exposure in homes of patients with sarcoidosis – an environmental exposure study. Environmental Health 2011, 10:8.

Tercelj M, Salobir B, Rylander R. Microbial antigen treatment in sarcoidosis – A new paradigm? Medical Hypotheses 2008;70(4):831-4.

Tercelj M, Salobir B, Zupancic M, Rylander R. Antifungal medication is efficient in the treatment of sarcoidosis. Therap Advances Respiratory Disease. 2011, 5:157-62.

Tercelj M, Salobir B, Zupancic M, Rylander R. Sarcoidosis treatment with antifungal medication: A follow-up study. Pulmonary Med. 2014. ID 739673 (4 pages On Line).

Tercelj M, Salobir B, Zupancic M, Wraber B, Rylander R. Inflammatory markers and pulmonary granuloma infiltration in sarcoidosis. Respirology 2014 19:225-30.

Tercelj M, Stopinsek S, Ihan A, Salobir B, Simcic S, Rylander R. Fungal Exposure and Low Levels of IL-10 in Patients with Sarcoidosis. Hindawi Publishing Corporation, Pulmonary Medicine, Volume 2014, Article ID 164565, 4 pages.

Tercelj M, Stopinsek S, Ihan A, Salobir B, Simcic S, Wraber A, Rylander R. In vitro and in vivo reactivity to fungal cell wall agents. Clin Exper Immunol 2022 166:87-93.

Thorn J, Beijer L, Rylander R. Effects of inhalation of (1-3)-β-D-glucan in healthy humans. Mediators Inflammation 2001 10:173-78.

Thorn J, Rylander R. Airways inflammation and glucan in a rowhouse area. Amer J Respir Crit Care Med 1998 157:1798-1893.

Thrasher, JD (2016). Fungi, Bacteria, Nano-particulates, Mycotoxins and Human Health in Water-Damaged Indoor Environments. Journal of Community and Public Health Nursing, Vol. 2, Issue 2.

Thrasher JD, Crawley S. The biocontaminants and complexity of damp indoor spaces: more than what meets the eyes. Toxicology and Industrial Health. 2009; 25(9-10) 583–615.

Thrasher JD, Gray MR, Kilburn KH, Dennis DP, Yu A (2012). A water-damaged home and health of occupants: A case study. J Environmental Public Health 2012.312836.

Thrasher JD, Hooper D, Taber J (2014). Family of six, their health and death of a 16 month old male from pulmonary hemorrhage: Identification of mycotoxins and mold in the home, lungs, liver and brain of deceased infant. Inter J Clin Toxicol 2, 1-10.

Thrasher JD, Prokop C, Roberts C, Hooper D (2016). A Family with ME/CFS Following Exposure to Molds, Mycotoxins and Bacteria in a Water-Damaged Home: A Case Report. Inter J Clin Toxicol, 3, 18-28. 

Thurtell MJ, et al. Neuro-ophthalmology of invasive fungal sinusitis: 14 consecutive patients and a review of the literature. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 2013; 41: 567–576 doi: 10.1111/ceo.12055.

Torvinen E, Meklin T, Torkko P, Suomalainen S, Reiman M. 2006. Mycobacteria in moisture-damaged building materials. Appl Environ Microbiol 72:6822-24.

Tuomi T, Reijula K, Johnsson T, Hemminki K, Hintikka EL, Lindroos O, Kalso S, Koukila-Kähkölä P, Mussalo-Rauhamaa H, Haahtela T. Mycotoxins in crude building materials from water-damaged buildings. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2000 May; 66(5):1899-904.

Turner JH, Soudry E, Nayak JV, Hwang PH. Survival outcomes in acute invasive fungal sinusitis: A systematic review and quantitative synthesis of published literature. Laryngoscope 123:1112-18. 

U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command with the College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois. Toxicologic and Analytical Studies with T-2 and Related Trichothecene Mycotoxins. August 20, 1985.

U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission. Indoor Air Pollution: Introduction for Health Professionals. Produced in conjunction with the American Lung Association, the American Medical Association, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2002.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). A Guide for Mold Remediation in Schools and Commercial Buildings. 2001.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC). The Inside Story: A Guide to Indoor Air Quality. 1988. 

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Report for Congress on Indoor Air Quality. Volume II: Assessment and Control of Indoor Air Pollution. August 1989.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Healthy School Environment Resources. Web. May 10, 2012.

U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO). Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Superfund, Ocean and Water Protection, Committee on Environment and Public Works, U.S. Senate. Indoor Air Pollution: Federal Efforts are Not Effectively Addressing a Growing Problem. October 1991.

U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO). Report to the Chairman, Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions, U.S. Senate. Indoor Mold: Better Coordination of Research on Health Effects and More Consistent Guidance Would Improve Federal Efforts. September 2008.
U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO). School Facilities: Condition of America’s Schools. 1995.

U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). A Brief Guide to Mold in the Workplace; Safety and Health Information Bulletin. updated November 2013.

Valdes JJ, Cameron JE, Cole RJ. Aflatrem: a tremorgenic mycotoxin with acute neurotoxic effects. Environ Health Perspec 1985 62:459-63.

Varga J, Kevel E, Rinyu E, Teren J, Kozakiewicz Z. Ochratoxin production by Aspergillus species. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, pp. 4461–4464, 1996.

Vasiadi M, Newman J, Theoharides TC. Isoflavones inhibit poly (I:C)-induces serum, brain, and skin inflammatory mediators – relevance to chronic fatigue syndrome. J Neuroinflammation 2014, 11:158: (on line).

Vishwanath V, Sulyok M, Labuda R, Bicker W, Krsak R. Simultanous determinaton of 186 fungal and bacterial metabolites in indoor matrices by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Anal Biomal Chem 395:155072, 2009.

Vojdani A, Lambert J. The Role of Th17 in Neuroimmune Disorders: Target for CAM Therapy. Part I. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011;2011:927294. doi: 10.1093/ecam/nep062. Epub 2011 Jun 16.

Vojdani A, Lambert J The Role of Th17 in Neuroimmune Disorders: Target for CAM Therapy. Part II. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011:984965. doi: 10.1093/ecam/nep063. Epub 2011 Jun 16.

Vojdani A, Lambert J, Kellermann G. The Role of Th17 in Neuroimmune Disorders: A Target for CAM Therapy. Part III. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011; 2011:548086. doi: 10.1093/ecam/nep064. Epub 2011 Jun 16.

Vojdani A, Thrasher JD, Madison RA, Gray MR, Heuser G, Campbell AW. (2003). Antibodies to molds and satratoxin in individuals exposed in water-damaged buildings. Archives of Environmental Health, An International Journal 08/2003; 58(7):421-32.

Wang J, Fitzpatrick DWW, Wilson JR. Effects to the trichothecene T-2 toxin on neurotransmitters and metabolites in discrete areas of the rat brain . Food & Chemical Toxicol .1998, 36:947-953.

Wang J, Fitzpatrick DWW, Wilson JR. Effects to the trichothecene T-2 toxin on blood-brain barrier permeability monoamine oxidase activity and protein synthesis in rats. Food & Chemical Toxicol.1998, 36,955-961.

Wannemacher RW, Wiener SL. Trichothecene Mycotoxins. Textbook of Military Medicine: Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare: Chapter 34.

Weinhold B. A spreading concern on inhalational health effects of mold. Environmental Health Perspectives 2007; 115(6): A300-305.

Wilson SC, Carriker CG, Brasel TL, Karunasens E, Douglas DR, Wu C, Andriychuk LA, Fogle MR, Martin JM, Straus DC. Culturability and toxicity of sick building syndrome-related fungi over time. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene 2004; 1: 500-504.

Wilson SC, Palmatier RN, Andriychuk LA, Martin JM, Jumper CA, Holder HW, Straus DC. Mold contamination and air handling units. J Occup Environ Hyg. 2007 Jul; 4(7):48391.

Wolf CHJ. Innate immunity and the pathogenicity of inhaled microbial particles. Internat J Biol Sci 2011 7:261-68.

World Health Organization. WHO Guidelines for Indoor Air Quality – Dampness and Mould. 2009. 

World Health Organization. WHO Guidelines for Indoor Air Quality – Selected Pollutants. 2010.

World Health Organization (WHO). Preventing Disease Through Healthy Environments: Towards an Estimate of the Environmental Burden of Disease. 2006.

World Health Organization, Environmental Health Criteria 105: Selected Mycotoxins: Ochratoxin, Trichothecenes, Ergot, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland, 1990.

World Health Organization (WHO). A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study. www.thelancet.com, Vol 380, December 15/22/29, 2012.

World Health Organization (WHO). Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study. www.thelancet.com, Vol 380, December 15/22/29, 2012.

World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe Copenhagen. Indoor Air Pollutants: Exposure and Health Effects. Report on a WHO Meeting. June 8-11, 1982.

World Health Organization (WHO). Environmental Burden of Disease Associated with Inadequate Housing: A method guide to the quantification of health effects of selected housing risks in the WHO European Region. 2011.

Yike I, Distler Am, Ziady AG, Dearborn DG. Mycotoxin adducts on human serum albumin: biomarkers of exposure to Stachybotrys chartarum. Environmental Health Perspectives 2006; 114(8): 1221-1226.

Yike I, Rand TG, Dearborn DG. Acute inflammatory responses to Stachybotrys chartarum in the lungs of infant rats: time course and possible mechanisms. Toxicol Sci 2005; 84(2): 407-417.

Yli-Pirila T, Kusnetsov J, Haatainen S, Hanninen M, Jalava P. Amoebae and other protozoa in material samples from moisture-damaged buildings. Environmental Research 96. 2004. 250-256.

Young SH, Roberts JR, Antonini JM. Pulmonary exposure to 1, 3-beta-glucan alters adaptive immune responses in rats. Inhal Toxicol 2006; 18(11): 865-874.

Zajtchuk R. Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare. Office of the Surgeon General at TMM Publications, Washington, DC, 1997.
Zeineh MM, Kang J, Atlas SE, Raman MM, Reiss AL et al. Right arcuate fasciculus abnormality in chronic fatigue syndrome. Radiology 2015 2:527-26.

Zhang R, Wang S, Lu H, Wang Z, Xu X. Misdiagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis: a clinical analysis of 26 immunocompetent patients. Int J Clin Exp Med 2014; 7(12):5075-5082.

Zhang X, Boesch-Saadatmandi C, Lou Y, Wolffram S, Huebbe P, Rimbach G. Ochratoxin A induces apoptosis in neuronal cells. Genes Nutr. 2009 Mar; 4(1):41-8. Epub 2009 Jan 16 Institute of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Biochemical Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, 310058, Hangzhou, China. 

Share by: